Pressure Volume Loop Studies

Understanding Pressure-Volume (PV) Loop Data

Pressure-volume (PV) loop studies provide researchers with comprehensive load independent data regarding normal and diseased conditions of the heart by generating the characteristic left or right ventricular pressure-volume (PV) loops. PV loops are the gold standard method for measuring direct, real-time complete cardiac function.

A single PV loop is generated by plotting pressure and volume signals against each other in real time with one loop representing the complete cardiac cycle. The image below demonstrates how the PV loops provide instant cardiovascular function feedback based on its morphology, position, and timing. Only left or right ventricular PV loops can provide beat-to-beat and full diastolic analysis from a single, minimally invasive catheter. Millar offers pressure-volume loop technology for both clinical and research applications.

Pressure-Volume (PV) Loop data for complete hemodynamic analysis

PV Loop Applications

  • Basic cardiovascular research
  • Stem cell studies
  • LVAD evaluation
  • Cardiac hypertrophy
  • Heart failure
  • Cardiovascular remodeling
  • LV/RV coupling
  • Valvular assessment
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology (rapid drug screening)
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy
  • Surgical interventions
  • Ischemia/reperfusion studies
  • Vascular occlusions

PV Loops = More Cardiovascular Data







HR Heart Rate Ea Arterial Elastance dP/dt min Minimum dP/dt
Vmax Maximum Volume CO Cardiac Output dV/dt max Maximum dV/dt
Vmin Minimum Volume SW Stroke Work dV/dt min Minimum dV/dt
Ves End-Systolic Volume SV Stroke Volume P@dP/dt max Pressure at dP/dt Max
Ved End-Diastolic Volume EF Ejection Fraction P@dV/dt max Pressure at dV/dt Max
Pmax Maximum Pressure PRSW Preload Recruitable SW V@dP/dt max Volume at dP/dt Max
Pmin Minimum Pressure ESPVR End-Systolic PV Relationship V@dP/dt min Volume at dP/dt Min
Pes End-Systolic Pressure EDPVR End-Diastolic PV Relationship Tau (Weiss) Tau-Weiss Method
Ped End-Diastolic Pressure E(t)

Time-Varying Maximum Elastance

Tau (Glantz) Tau-Glantz Method
Ees End-Systolic Elastance dP/dt max Maximum dP/dt Tau (Logistic) Tau-Logistic Method


Millar Products Used in Cardiac Pressure-Volume Loop Studies



MPVS Ultra Pressure-Volume Loop System

Pacher, P. et al., 2008. Measurement of cardiac function using pressure-volume conductance catheter technique in mice and rats. Nat. Protocols, 3(9), pp.1422–1434. Publication link.

Ventri-Cath Pig Catheter

Colah, S. et al., 2012. Ex vivo perfusion of the swine heart as a method of pre-transplant assessment . Perfusion. Publication link.

PVR-1045 Pressure-Volume Catheter

Lawrie, A. et al., 2011. Paigen diet-fed apolipoprotein E knockout mice develop severe pulmonary hypertension in an interleukin-1-dependent manner. The American journal of pathology, 179(4), pp.1693–705. Publication link.

MPVS Ultra Pressure-Volume Loop System

Hoole, S.P. et al., 2012. Coronary collaterals provide a constant scaffold effect on the left ventricle and limit ischemic left ventricular dysfunction in humans . Journal of Applied Physiology , 112 (8 ), pp.1403–1409. Publication link.

For more information on Mikro-Tip pressure catheters or to purchase, contact your local representative at 1 719.576.3970 or complete this inquiry form.

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